What is a Master Plan in Ukraine?
The master plan (also known as a comprehensive city plan) is the main document used to conduct urban planning efforts. It describes how an area will be developed; it is future-oriented. It also includes baseline information and describes present conditions about the built environment, infrastructure, service provisions, areas for historic and cultural preservation, and it defines future economic development efforts. A master plan provides a structured approach for creating a clear and consistent framework for development. Net, it is a guiding document.
Role as a Regulatory Document
The master plan has a regulatory function. It is an official written document. It is adopted by an authorized regulatory body (usually a local council) in a format stipulated by the law and developed by due procedure. The master plan is aimed at regulating land use and spatial planning and is based on legal norms. It is a multipurpose document and serves as a resource for citizens, government authorities, businesses, city service providers such as police and emergency departments and for planning transportation and economic development. All institutions and businesses are required to comply with the land use classifications identified in the master plan.
Master plansare the documents that are aimed at counteracting chaotic development of a city. They are based on state construction codes, fire codes, sanitary-hygiene regulations and other norms. These norms are also the basis for development and construction requirements regarding specific facilities and buildings. The use of zoning is an important aspect of the masterplan. Zoning divides a city into functional zones: e.g., residential, industrial, recreational, commercial, and manufacturing. The construction of facilities in these areas can only be conducted in compliance with their functional designation. As regulatory documents, masterplans help prevent breaches of law and violations of public interests that are protected by the law. Nevertheless, due to the secret nature of master plans here in Ukraine, they perform this function only partially.
Master plans follow urban development policies. The law of Ukraine, "On the Regulation of Urban Development," defines how master plans are developed and discussed, and how they are adopted and implemented. Article 1 states, "The master plan of a municipality is the main urban planning documentation at the local level designed to support the long-term strategy for planning and development of the municipality."
Master plans are made in accordance with the interests of the local community and also with public and private interests. As the basic planning document for the local development of cities, it performs the following functions:
- sets the direction of, and limits the boundaries of, municipalities;
- defines the functionality of land parcels and defines building and zoning classifications;
- contains specifics about transportation options, road development plans, and traffic management;
- protects municipalities against dangerous natural and/or man-made processes;
- promotes the conservation and preservation of places important for cultural heritage.
The unavailability of masterplanspreventsthe public from knowing about and opposing non-sanctioned development, i.e., development conducted without appropriate agreement from the local community. Projects are often in violation of construction, fire, sanitary and other norms. Some buildings are even constructed with disregard for the norms and pose a direct threat to the life and health of residents.
Violation of Citizens Rights
Unavailability of master plans causes city dwellers to be unaware of the factors which affect their quality of life and the real valueof their property. In areas designated for reconstruction, dwellers’ properties can be confiscated under the pretext that the project is for the “common good” or for “public needs.” Adequate compensation is not always paid. Development of new commercial and logistics centers and industrial and transportation facilities usually leads to increases in air pollution and noise and results in a deterioration of the quality of life for residents near these areas. It also can decrease residential property values. Unavailability of master plans prevents residents from knowing about decisions that determine living conditions in their communities. And it deprives them of their right to uninterrupted property ownership. Citizens' rights are violated when master plans are kept secret.
Scheme of Comprehensive City Plans that are Available and What They are Used for
See attached file for a description of the types of plans available in Ukraine and what they are used for.